Radio

RADIO TERMINOLOGY

 PLEASE MAKE YOURSELF FAMILIAR WITH THE VARIOUS TERMS BELOW

 AD

A PRE RECORDED COMMERCIAL

 AD BREAK (ALSO REFERED TO AS “A BREAK”)

A GROUP OF AIDS SCHEDULED TO BE PLAYED AT A SPECIFIC TIME ACCORDING TO THE AD LOG.

 AD LOG

THE SCHEDULE FOR PLAYING ADS.

 AIR SHIFT

THE TIME SLOT ALLOCATED TO A PRESENTER.

 BACK TIME

TIMING SPEECH, MUSIC OR AN AD BREAK TO STOP AT A SPECIFIC TIME. FOR EXAMPLE, BACK TIMING A LINK TO HIT A VOCAL OR BACK TIMING AN AD BREAK TO HIT A NEWS JUNCTION

 BED

MUSIC (WITH NO VOCALS) INTENDED TO BE TALKED OVER.

CLOCK

THE VARIOUS SEGMENTS MAKING UP AN HOUR OF AIRTIME

 CROSS FADE

WHEN THE NEXT SONG FADES IN AS THE PREVIOUS ONE FADES OUT

 CRUNCH’N’ROLL

A SHORT LINK OVER AN INTRO AFTER A SEGUE DURING A MUSIC SWEEP. THE CONTENT OF THE LINK WILL USUALLY CONSIST OF THE STATION NAME AND A THROW FORWARD TO THE NEXT TWO SONGS.

 CUE

(IN PRESENTATION) THIS IS THE INTRODUCTION TO A FEATURE OR PACKAGE, SETTING UP THE ITEM. IT CAN ALSO BE A SIGNAL FOR A STARTING POINT.

 DESK

THE CONSOLE IN A STUDIO.

 DONUT (USUALLY TYPE OF JINGLE

A SECTION OF MUSIC BETWEEN TWO VOCALS, INTENDED TO BE TALKED OVER.

 DRIVE THE DESK

TO OPERATE THE DESK

 DROPS

STATION SLOGANS OR STATEMENTS WITHOUT FX (DRY). THESE ARE PRE-RECORDED BY A VOICE OVER ARTIST.

DRY

NO MUSIC OR FX UNDERNEATH SPEECH.

 EQ (EQUALISATION)

ALTERING THE SOUND BY BOOSTING OR CUTTING CERTAIN FREQUENCIES, EQ CONTROLS ARE A VERY FINE TONE CONTROL………………………….

 FADER

THE SLIDING VOLUME CONTROLON EACH CHANNEL ON THE DESK.

 FORMAT

THE VARIOUS ELEMENTS CHOSEN TO CREATE A STATION SOUND/STYLE

 FX

SOUND EFFECTS

 GAIN CONTROL

A VOLUME CONTROL ALLOWING LEVELS TO BE SET AT CORRECT POINT WHEN THE FADER IS FULLY OPEN, 

 HITTING THE VOCAL

A LINK THAT’S TIMED TO STOP NEARLY BEFORE THE FIRST LYRIC OF A SONG

 INTRO

THE MUSIC AT THE BEGINNING OF A SONG BEFORE THE FIRST LYRIC.

 JINGLE (SEE ALSO DONUT/SHOTGUN/SHOUT/TRANSITION)

A SUNG STATION SLOGAN OR STATEMENT WITH MUSIC BACKING OR ACAPPELLA

 JUNCTION

A POINT IN A CLOCK WHERE A SPECIFIC PROGRAM ELEMENT IS SCHEDULED. FOREXAMPLE, A NEW JUNCTION.

 LINER

A STATION SLOGAN OR STATEMENT SPOKEN BY A PRESENTER.

.LINK

SPEECH FROM A PRESENTER BETWTWO ITEMS/SONGS.

 MUSIC SWEEP

SEE “SWEEP”

 OUT CUE

THE LAST WORDS OF A SPEECH ITEM/PACKAGE. THIS IS GIVEN TO A TECH. OP OR PRESENTER IN ADVANCE TO ALLOW THE NEXT ITEM/SONG TO BE BROUGHT IN AT THE CORRECT TIME.

 PACKAGE

A PRODUCED, PRE-RECORDED ITEM. CAN BE DRY SPEECH OR INCLUDE MUSIC AND/OR INCLUDE FX

 PRE-FADE

AUDITIONING THE OUTPUT OF A CHANNEL BEFORE PUTTING IT TO AIR.  

 PROMO

A CROSS BETWEEN A TRAILER AND AN AD, PROMOTING A PROGRAMME FEATURE OR EVENT SPONSORED BY A CLIENT.

 PROMOTION

A CLIENT CAMPAIGN INVOLVING A PROGRAM ELEMENT. FOR EXAMPLE, SPONSORING AN ON AIR COMPETETION

 RAMP

A JINGLE WITH A SHORT BED AT THE BEGINNING WHICH IS INTENDED TO BE TALKED OVER (UP TO THE VOCAL)

 SEGUE

WHEN THE CHANGE BETWEEN TWO SONGS IS IMMEDIATE

 SELF OP

A PRESENTER DRIVING HIS/HER OWN DESK

 SHORTGUN

A VERY FAST, SHORT JINGLE CONTAINING ONLY THE STATION NAME.

 SHOUT

A JINGLE WHERE THE VOCAL GROUP PRESENT THECHOSENPHRASE IN A LOUD, EXCITED TONE – THIS IS SPOKEN, NOT SUNG.

 STAB

A SHORT BURST OF MUSIC USED AS MUSICAL PUNCTUATION BETWEEN SPEECH BITS. SOMETIMES USED TO BRING AN END TO A BED.

 SUB

TO EDIT OR RE WRITE A SCRIPT.

 SWEEP (OR “MUSIC SWEEP”)

THREE OR MORE SONGS PLAYED TOGETHER WITHOUT INTERUPTION. ALTHOUGH CRUNCH’N’ROLL LINKS AND SWEEPERS ARE OFTEN USED TO IDENTIFY THE STATION DURING SWEEPS, THE MUSIC NEVER STOPS.

 SWEEPERS

STATION SLOGANS OR STATEMENTS WITH FX UNDER DROPS

USED TO BRAND THE STATION AND ASSIST IN SMOOTH MUSIC CHANGES EITHER BY SEGUE OR CROSSFADE.

 TAG

USUALLY A CLIENT’S SLOGAN INCORPORATED INTO THE OUT CUE OF A SPONSORED ITEM.

 TECH OP (TECHNICAL OPERATION)

SOMEONE WHO DRIVES THE DESK FOR A PRESENTER.

 THROW FORWARD

TEASING THE LISTENER WITH INFORMATION ABOUT MUSIC OR AN ITEM COMING UP.

 TRAIL

A LONGER, USUALLY SCRIPTED VERSION OF ATHROW FORWARD, BUT WITH MORE INFORMATION.

 TRANSITION

A JINGLE DESIGNED FOR USE BETWEEN TWO SONGS TO MAKE A TEMPO CHANGE SMOTHER.

FOREXAMPLE FROM A FAST PACED SONG TO SLOW ONE.

END

African broadcasters trained in the ‘Whole Station Approach’ (by Pauline Kalumikiza, Program Officer, Farm Radio Malawi)

“The first time I entered the studios of Radio Ada 13 years ago as a volunteer, my passion was to serve my community, the Dangme-speaking people, through news and programs using the local language and culture. Here I am today as part of a team of Whole Radio Station Trainers, a dream beyond dreams.” These are the words of one of the participants, Kofi Larweh, from Ghana.

The “whole station” training, which took place in the last week of March, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, focuses on building a range of broadcasting skills, including: farm radio programming design, management skills, and using ICTs for agricultural communication. The participants will later conduct similar trainings themselves in radio stations in their own countries. The ultimate goal of the trainings is to improve farm radio programming and the lives of farmers.

Kofi values the experience that his fellow trainees − from Ghana, Malawi, Tanzania and Ethiopia – bring to the table. The variety of ideas on production and management from different socio-political backgrounds broadens his outlook: “When I look at the years ahead, this experience, taking place in an international institution for livestock research, in humility reminds me that a healthy cow dies with grass in its mouth.”

As part of the course, the participants visited Oromiya Radio Station in the Oromiya Region of Ethiopia. The participants spoke highly of the course: Hilda Kileo is Radio Manager of Boma Hai Fun, owned by Hai district council, near Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. She says, “The training is important to me, because the world keeps on changing and there is [a] need for broadcasters to update their knowledge. My radio station will improve … the way we … produce programs for farmers.”

Mulu Berhe works for Ethiopia Radio and Television Agency as a program researcher. She says the training is a refresher. But she feels that it was also an eye-opener on how to improve their radio programs, especially by providing a more effective platform for farmers. She wants to be part of the solutions to farmers’ concerns.

The training was organized by Farm Radio International (FRI), and is being facilitated by David Mowbray, FRI’s Manager of Training and Standards, and Doug Ward, Chairperson of the FRI Board.

CBS re opening, a Catch 22 situation

Owek Mulwanyamuli Ssemwogerere

 Although majority Ugandans are looking forward to the re opening of CBS radio, with some daily tabloids setting the 19th of June as the D day, the decision by the former Kattikiro of Buganda ,  Joseph Mulwanyamuli Ssemwogerere to get out of retirement and join active politics sets the re opening of the station in a catch 22 situation.

At the beginning of this week, Ssemwogere together with his successor Dan Muliika flanked Dr Kizza Besigye at the IPC Buganda mobilization campaign launch function at the Pope Paul memorial community center in Ndeeba. This caused blood pressures and other ailments to rise to alarming levels in the bodies of many Ugandans including yours truly.  Other notable politicians in attendance included the newly elected Mukono north MP Betty Nambooze and the Kampala Central representative Erias Lukwago who are staunch DP supporters but are in for the Inter Party Conference as opposed to the President General Nobert Mao.

With the IPC strategizing day and night, this has been one of their best calculated moves. Dr Kizza Besigye is definitely going to be the IPC leader because all other party heads with the exception of Nobert Mao cannot match his resilience and focus in trying to remove President Museveni from power. However, the Buganda region is not effectively represented in the IPC yet it greatly affects and determines the political landscape in the country. This makes Mr. Ssemwogerere a notable contender for vice president of IPC and possible running mate for Kizza Besigye. In fact the DP machinery has to re think its position as far as the IPC is concerned because this move renders Mao completely irrelevant in the upcoming campaigns for presidency.   Mao is going to hold a rally at clock tower on 12th June and I bet his joining the IPC is high on the agenda.  

Why the catch 22 situation?  After the closure of CBS FM, numerous committees were set up to negotiate with government for a possible reopening. Government set out its terms which included a public apology by the Buganda establishment for the September riots, a condition that Buganda refused to ascend to. The talks eventually hit a dead end with both parties deciding to buy time. In Feb 2010, another committee was established and according to inside sources, it was led by the former Kattikiro Mulwanyamuli Ssemwogere and included among others, Professor James Mulwana and the former board chairman of Uganda Investment authority, William Kalema. According to sources, these discussions did not bear much fruit as government hard lined and was uncompromising about CBS apologising the apology yet this was an impossible pronouncement from the Buganda establishment.

Therefore Mr. Ssemwogerere’s joining the IPC presents a blink situation as far as the re opening of CBS is concerned. To some, it is a blessing in disguise, yet to others it further complicates the situation forcing the president to re visit his drawing board.       

All signs and indications on ground show a blurred image of the President pushing for the re opening the station with a few conditions in place. Although no formal statement was released after the President meeting cabinet ministers on Monday 7th June, sources have it that a security meeting sat immediately after the cabinet meeting with General Tinyefunza vowing not to re open CBS . However his boss was thinking otherwise.

Of late words have been making rounds that Amelia Kyambadde is spearheading the move to re open CBS to an extent of brokering a meeting of CBS employees with President Museveni. Further still, although government has been adamant about paying Mengo all the rental arrears in relation to property that has been in the hands of government for years, government seems to have softening its stand  according to sources. In fact those in charge of relocating equipment and other facilities from the Butikkiro to the new Joint Clinical Research Centre headquarters around Kampala have been ordered to undertake the assignment expeditiously.

Whether talk of re opening CBS FM is to keep alive in the urban areas, we should not be surprised if this talk ends up as a mere rumor. For those who love their kingdom and country, we cannot sit on the side and hope that somebody is going to sort this mess for us; we must stand to be counted like Owek Ssemwogerere.

 

Public Broadcaster should serve the National Interest.

 A 145 page report on public broadcasting media in Uganda has stated that civil society and political groupings view the Uganda Broadcasting Corporation as a government owned controlled media.  The report, whose general objective was to assess the status of public broadcasting in Africa and to initiate democratic debate around findings and recommendations in 12 selected countries, was launched by Chief Justice Benjamin Odoki at Garden City hotel. The report, published by the Open Society Initiative East Africa (OSIEA) and the Africa Governance Monitoring and Advocacy Project (AfriMAP), argues that the Uganda broadcasting Act, which establishes the UBC, fell far short of creating a broadcaster that would have served the interest of the public instead of government.  The research report highlights that Radio and Television in particular are the prime sources of information, education and entertainment for people all over Africa especially through the growth of private commercial and community broadcasting. Although

 The liberalization of broadcasting has brought a new pluralism in the media enabling different voices to be heard and opinions to be aired, it has not has not produced a corresponding diversity or quality of service. The report further highlights the widespread concerns that the present regulatory arrangements are not a sufficient guarantee of Constitutional commitments to freedom of expression and to the independence of the media, nor do they enable the effective development of broadcasting in the public interest. The National broadcasting policy of Uganda, spells out the objectives of the public broadcaster but these have not highly been reflected within the programming schedule of UBC and thus has contributed to the weaknesses currently seen in the provision of broadcasting services. There has been no explicit legislative and regulatory framework for the development of broadcasting and tensions among different public agencies on their perceived role in society. This is an obvious gap in policy making.

 Every King has a Fool

It is close to 8 months since CBS FM radio was unceremoniously shut down by Government operatives claiming to be working on orders from above. Although 3 more radio stations were closed down on the same day, they have since opened and resumed operations. All talk and mediations has no fruitful results to show leading to a deadlock of what the future holds for the station and its employees.

However, last month, a group of 5 employees led by Godfrey Seguya aka “Kaibanda” were invited to meet the President, His Excellency Yoweri Kaguta at state house Entebbe. To some of us, this was the joke of the year and to others it was betrayal by colleagues in a revolution.  Surprisingly, the 5 employees did actually meet the president and had a 2 hour discussion about CBS, their livelihoods and how they are coping with the situation.  

The events that followed need no tale. A group of DP enthusiast rushed to the press, as management was torn between two worlds whether to castigate the five or give them a hero’s welcome. It was understandable to have such a reaction because nobody knew what was going on.  However, after a thorough analysis of the act on my part, I remembered what my lecture Dr Adreaus Shott reiterated one day as we undertook the Shakespearean studies. He said “Every king has a Fool” in relation to the “Fool” in Shakespeare’s King Lear.

The talks between Government and Buganda officials had hit dead end. According to reliable sources, the president and the king could not see eye to eye. The Generals in the Army opposed the re opening of the station outright.  The only solution was the employee’s court case yet the judge kept on insisting that both parties should sit and iron out their differences amicably.  As employees we relied on our bosses for feedback whether true of fabricated. Worse still other departments at Bulange had started feeling the pinch of CBS closure with no revenues to report. It was a tricky situation.

That is why I believe that the visit by our colleagues was worthwhile. We had our own getting information from the horse’s mouth, whether it was right or not. Secondly, many people want to meet the president and discuss about CBS among other issues, but their fear being castrated by those who think that talking to the president today is suicide for Buganda. These elements might have engineered the meeting.   If the King negotiates for the reopening of the station, to some Baganda, this means having lost the battle, yet the dead lock will not yield any results. The same is true on government’s side.   This is where the kings fool comes in. The kings fool might take it upon himself to mediate on behalf of the king not because it is the right thing to do but because people may excuse his excesses simply because he is a fool. Somebody has to shoulder all the blame and a fool can effectively do this. In Buganda when somebody dies, relatives and friends plus the community mourn the loss of a friend overnight. However, there is always a drunkard who tries to ensure that people keep awake and focused on why they have congregated. During this drunken stupor, this person will start revealing who is dating who and whether your new born baby actually belongs to the village chairman or even your neighbor. He may be castigated for being drunk and speaking loosely but actually he has revealed the truth. Our colleagues were the fools. We got to know what is on the president’s mind, how some Baganda cabinet ministers are against the opening of the station and how some politicians at Mengo are also opposed to the reopening.   It’s a catch 22 situation. Therefore a foolish act may save the day. Bravo our fools.

One response

14 06 2010
Mugabi Robert

Ok that is not bad should we now have ahope that our on and only CBS fm ensajja muzona will resume it work by 19th this mounth?

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